Consolidated data

Key figures - IFRS

Last update: February 12th, 2018
In € millions 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
Net sales 21,960 20,907 21,199 19,553 20,247 21,474 20,719 17,891
% change +5.0% -1.4% +8.4% -3.4% -5.7% +3.6% +15.8% +20.8%
Total employee benefit costs 5,871 5,542 5,785 5,292 5,292 5,377 5,021 4,836
as a % of net sales 26.7% 26.5% 27.3% 27.1% 26.1% 25.0% 24.2% 27.0%
Average number of employees (full time equivalent) 107,800 105,700 105,800 106,700 105,700 107,300 108,300 105,100
Research and development expenses 641 718 689 656 643 622 592 545
as a % of net sales 2.9% 3.4% 3.3% 3.4% 3.2% 2.9% 2.9% 3.0%
EBITDA from recurring activities 1 4,087 4,084 3,934 3,286 3,285 3,445 2,878 2,660
Operating income from recurring activities 2,742 2,692 2,577 2,170 2,234 2,423 1,945 1,695
Operating margin from recurring activities 12.5% 12.9% 12.2% 11.1% 11.0% 11.3% 9.4% 9.5%
Operating income 2,631 2,791 2,207 1,991 1,974 2,469 1,945 1,945
Operating margin 12.0% 13.3% 10.4% 10.2% 9.7% 11.5% 9.4% 9.5%
Cost of net debt 176 203 184 130 94 155 206 236
Other financial income and expenses (0) 20 (30) (43) (15) (22) 236 10
Income before taxes 2,354 2,464 1,869 1,651 1,702 2,307 1,996 1,498
Income tax 661 797 706 620 575 736 534 449
Effective tax rate 28.1% 32.3% 37.8% 37.5% 33.8% 31.9% 26.8% 30.0%
Net income 1,693 1,667 1,163 1,031 1,127 1,571 1,462 1,049
as a % of net sales 7.7% 8.0% 5.5% 5.3% 5.6% 7.3% 7.1% 5.9%
Dividends 2 585 522 463 464 438 378 314 147
Cash flows from operating activities 2,741 2,764 2,695 2,522 3,089 2,926 1,196 1,322
as a % of net sales 12.5% 13.2% 12.7% 12.9% 15.3% 13.6% 5.8% 7.4%
Gross purchases of intangible assets and PP&E 1,771 1,811 1,804 1,883 1,980 1,996 1,711 1,100
as a % of net sales 8.1% 8.7% 8.5% 9.6% 9.8% 9.3% 8.3% 6.1%
Net debt 3 716 944 1,008 707 142 1,053 1,814 1,629
Equity 11,261 10,646 9,542 9,523 9,256 8,501 8,101 8,127
Gearing 6% 9% 11% 7% 2% 12% 22% 20%
Net debt 3 / EBITDA 1 0.18 0.23 0.26 0.22 0.04 0.31 0.63 0.61
Cash flows from operating activities / Net debt 3 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
Operating income from recurring activities / Net interest expense 4 15.9 13.3 12.8 16.0 15.7 14.2 9.2 9.1
Free cash flow 5 662 1,024 653 322 1,154 1,075 -19 426
ROE 6 15.0% 15.7% 12.2% 10.8% 12.2% 18.5% 18.1% 12.9%
ROCE 7 11.9% 12.1% 12.2% 11.1% 11.9% 12.8% 10.9% 10.5%

1 As defined in note 3.7.2 to the consolidated financial statements.

2 Including the dividends paid in shares.

3 Net debt: financial liabilities - cash and cash equivalents (excluding cash flows from cash management financial assets and borrowing collaterals) +/- derivative assets, as defined in note 26 to the consolidated financial statements.

4 Net interest charge: interest financing expenses - interest income from cash and equivalents.

5 Free cash flow: cash flows from operating activities - cash flows from investing activities (excluding cash flows from cash management financial assets and borrowing collaterals), as defined in section 3.5.3.

6 ROE: net income attributable to shareholders/shareholders’ equity excluding non-controlling interests.

7 ROCE: Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT)/capital employed (intangible assets and PP&E + long-term financial assets + working capital requirement), as defined in section 3.6.